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Images, Photos, Music, Sounds for Fair Use: Works Cited

Help for finding copyright friendly images, music, videos... and for students and teachers to understand "fair use".

Citing Electronic Sources

  • Many of Iolani Library's online resource databases and e-books include their own citation generators.
  • URLs: Most academic writing no longer lists the URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) for online sites.  Ask your teacher if you should include them.  If so, you should place it in angle brackets after the date of access. If an URL is too long to fit in one line, break it only after a slash.

    Example:  < http://www.iolani.org/about/history/harold-keables>

A web site:

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of the Web Page [italicized if citing a main page; in quotes if part of a larger site; begin with this if no author is given]. Title of the Overall Web Site. Publisher. Date of the last update, if given. Web.

Date of access.

·        An entire website:

Bartley.com: Great Books Online. Ed. Steven H. van Leeuwen. 2005. Web. 30 Nov. 2009

·         Page from a website:

Whitman, Walt. “O Captain! My Captain!” Leaves of Grass. 1900. Bartleby.com: Great Books Online.

Ed. Steven H. van Leeuwen. 1999.Web. 30 Nov. 2009.

·         A website with an author:

Grayson, Ian. "Testing Time for Schools, Students."  Cable News Network. 2 Sep. 2005. Web. 30 Nov. 2009.

·         A web site with no author:

"Kenya." The World Factbook.  Central Intelligence Agency. 3 Aug. 2010. Web. 30 Aug. 2010.

E-Books

·         Examples:

An e-book from a web source.

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. London: J.M. Dent, 1906. Google Books, Web 30 Nov. 2012.

An e-book from an electronic file (i.e. Amazon).

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Amazon Digital Services, n.d. Kindle File.

An e-book from an electronic database.  After the author, title, and bibliographical information, include the name of the database (“ebrary” in the example below), the publisher (“ProQuest”), the medium (“Web”), and the date of access.

Austen, Jane. Emma. Delhi: Global Media, 2007. ebrary. ProQuest. Web. 30 Nov. 2010.

A scholarly journal article, found in an online database:

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical Volume number. Issue number (year): pages. Name of Database. Publisher. Web. Date of access.

·         Example:

Safley, Ellen. "Demand for E-books in an Academic Library." Journal of Library Administration 45,3/4 (2006):

445-57. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Aug. 2010.

A magazine article, found in an online database:

Format

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Day [include only if magazine is published more than once per month]

Month [abbreviate except for May, June, or July] Year: pages. Name of database. Publisher. Web. Date of access.

·         Example:

Auletta, Ken. "Publish or Perish." New Yorker 26 Apr. 2010: 24-31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web.

12 Aug. 2014.

A magazine article, found on the web:

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine. Publisher, Day Month Year of publication. Web. Date of access.

·         Example:

Dockterman, Eliana. "Five Ways to Fix College Admissions." Time 01 May 2014: n.p. Web. 15 Aug. 2014.

A newspaper article found in an online database:

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Name of Newspaper Day Month Year,

edition of newspaper [if there is one]: section and page number [use + if article covers more than one page].

Name of Database Publisher. Web. Date of access.

·         Example:

Kakutani, Michiko. "The Course of Social Change Through College Admissions." New York Times

25 Nov. 2005:Late ed. E44. LexisNexis Scholastic. Web. 30 Nov. 2009

A newspaper article found on the web:

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper. Publisher, Day Month Year of publication. Web. Date of access. In the example below, New York Times is the title of the newspaper and New York Times (not italicized) is the publisher.

 ·         Example:

Lieber, Ron. "Four Stand-Out College Essays About Money." New York Times. New York Times, 9 May 2014. Web. 15 Aug.

2015.

An online government publication:

Format:

List the government ("United States"), the bureau, and the title of the publication, followed by place, publisher and date of publication. Web. Date of access.

 ·         Example:

United States. Census Bureau. The 2009 Statistical Abstract. Washington: GPO, 2008. Web. 5 Oct. 2009.

Images:

Author's name (if available); "the title of image." (italized if it is a work of art) or a description of the image; date of when the work was created, if know; the medium ("Online image"); (for works of art) the institution and city where the original work is held, if known; the website (italicized); "Web"; date of access.

Note: You may add the specific type of online image (i.e., map, cartoon, chart or graphic).

 ·         Examples:

Delacroix, Eugene. "Arabs Skirmishing in the Mountains." 1863. Online image. National Gallery of Art,

Washington DC. Web. 30 Nov. 2006.

"China." 2006. Map. China Country Page, U.S. Dept. of State. Web. 30 Nov. 2010.

An online video:

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Name [or organization name; this can also be a user name. If no author is identified,

begin with the title]. "Title of the Video". Title of the Overall Web Site. Publisher. Date of creation.

Web. Date of access.

·         Example:

GoogleDevelopers. "Using the JavaScript Client Library with Google Calendar." YouTube.

GoogleDevelopers: 1 Apr. 2008. Web. 21 Jan. 2010.

Khan, Sal. "French Revolution Part 1: From the Convocation of the Estates General to the

Storming of the Bastille." Khan Academy. 2012. Web. 30 Nov. 2012.

A podcast:

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Name [or organization name; this can also be a user name. If no author is identified,

begin with the title]. "Title of the Podcast". Title of the Overall Web Site. Publisher. Date of creation.

Web. Date of access.

·         Example:

Hamilton, Jon. "From Primitive Parts, A Highly Evolved Human Brain" (Podcast). NPR.org  9 Aug. 2010.

Web. 30 Nov. 2010.

A blog post:

If no author is identified, start with the title of the blog post in quotation marks. If it has no title, take a phrase from the opening line.

·         Example:

Pell, Dave. "Immersed In Too Much Information, We Can Sometimes Miss the Big Picture." All Tech

Considered. NPR.org.11 Aug. 2010. Web. 30 Nov. 2010.

An e-mail:

List the writer, last name first. Take the title from the subject line. Date of message, medium ("E-mail").

·         Example:

Iwashita, Val T. "Sullivan Center for Innovation and Leadership." 15 May 2012. E-mail.

An online interview:


Khan, Sal. Interview by Neal Conan. Talk of the Nation. NPR, Washington, DC. 23 Oct. 2014. Web. 15 July

2014.

Refer to The Keables Guide or The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. for documentation.

Citing Print Resources

Refer to The Keables Guide  - Bibliography

Citing a book with one author:

Format:

Author's last name, First name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Print.

•           Example:

Ferllini, Roxana. Silent Witness: How Forensic Anthropology is Used to Solve the World's Toughest Crimes.

      Buffalo: Firefly, 2002. Print.

Citing a book with multiple authors:

Format:  

First author's last name, First author's first name, and Second author's full name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Print.

•           Example:

Pilcher, Tim, and Brad Brooks. The Essential Guide to World Comics. London: Collins, 2005. Print.

Note: if there are more than two authors, you may name the first and add et al (and others) after the first name.

Citing a work in an anthology:

Format:

Author's last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s).

       Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Page range of entry. Print.

•           Example:

Yoon, Paul. "Once the Shore." The Best American Short Stories 2006. Eds. Ann Patchett and Katrina Kenison. 

      Boston: Houghton, 2006. 1-19. Print.

An article in a reference book:

Format:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. [if the article is unsigned, give the title first] “Title of the Article.”  

Title of the Reference Work. Editor of the reference book [for less familiar works].

Edition. [for specialized reference books,  include the city and publisher here, followed by a comma]

Year of Publication. Print.

·         Examples:

MacDonald, Kevin. “Ancient African Civilizations.” Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African &

      African American Experience. Eds. Kwane Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

      2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005. Print.

A government publication:

Format:

Government Name. Government Agency. Title of Publication. Place of Publication: Publisher,

      Year of Publication. Print.

Examples:

United States. Census Bureau. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2001.

      Washington: GPO, 2001. Print.

An magazine article:

Format:

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Day [only include if the magazine is published more than once per month]

       Month [abbreviate except for May, June, or July] Year: pages

      [do not give the volume and issue numbers even if they are listed]. Print.

•           Example:

Von Drehle, David. “The Case Against Summer Vacation.” Time 2 Aug. 2010: 36-42. Print.

An newspaper article:

Format:

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical Day Month [abbreviate except for May, June, or July]

      Year, edition: pages [use + if article covers more than one page]. Print.

•           Example:

Perez, Rob. "Slow Wheels of Justice." Honolulu Star-Advertiser 23 July 2014: A1+. Print. 

Scholarly journal article:

Format:

Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): pages. Print.

•           Example:

Edwards, Philip. “Tragic Balance in Hamlet.” Shakespeare Survey 36 (1983): 43-54. Print.

Mills, Alice. "Harry Potter and the Terrors of the Toilet." Children's Literature in Education

      37.1 (2006): 1-13. Print.

 

Refer to The Keables Guide or The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. for documentation.